Herbie automatically transforms floating point expressions into more accurate forms. This page troubleshoots common Herbie errors.
Herbie error messages refer here for additional information and debugging tips.
This error means you mis-formatted Herbie's input. Common errors
include misspelled function names and parenthesized expressions
that should not be parenthesized. For example, in
(- (exp (x)) 1), the expression
x is a
variable so shouldn't be parenthesized.
(- (exp x) 1)
would be the correct way of writing that expression. Please review
the input format documentation for more.
This error occurs when Herbie is unable to find enough valid
points. For example, the expression
(acos (+ 1000 x))
only yields a valid result when
x is between -1001 and
-999, a rather narrow range. The solution is to help out Herbie by
specifying a precondition:
:pre (< -1001 x -999).
Herbie will use the precondition to improve its sampling strategy.
This error indicates that your precondition excludes all possible
inputs. For example, the precondition
(< 3 x 2)
excludes all inputs. Herbie raises this exception when it can prove
that no inputs could work. The solution is to fix the precondition
to allow some inputs.
This rare error indicates that Herbie could not compute a "ground
truth" for your expression. For some expressions, like
(exp x)), calculating a correct output for large input values
requires exponentially many bits. Herbie raises this error when more
than 10,000 bits are required.
Herbie warnings refer here for explanations and common actions to take.
Herbie will raise this warning when some inputs require more than
10 000 bits to compute an exact ground truth value. For example,
(/ (exp x) (exp x)) for very
x, absurdly large exponents would be required.
Herbie discards such inputs and raises this warning. If you see
this warning, you should add a restrictive precondition, such
:pre (< -100 x 100), to prevent large inputs.
Some systems do not have native implementations for all operations
that Herbie uses. (For example, Microsoft's
does not provide the
y0 function.) Herbie provides a
fallback implementation, but you can disable the fallback
Some bugs cannot be directly fixed and are documented here.
When using Chrome to view web pages on your local machine, Chrome
disables certain APIs for security reasons; this prevents the
Herbie reports from drawing the
--allow-file-access-from-files to fix